top of page

A summary of excerpts from written reports provided by
Schools and Local Education Authorities which have implemented
The INPP Developmental Screening Test and
School Intervention Programme

Cover picture[87].jpg



This page contains excerpts from reports provided by some schools and local authorities where the INPP Developmental Screening Test and School Intervention Programme has been used.  It does not include all schools where the programme has been used as only some have provided written feedback. 


The majority of these reports have not been published. 

A full list of research published in peer reviewed journals based on the use of the same programme can be found here.

Figure 1

Graph 1  NMI pre and post intervention.jpg


Atkinson Road Academy
Newcastle upon Tyne

N = 40

All assessed for signs of NMI and educational achievement at outset (SATS)

Age – 7 – 8 years


Experimental group     N = 17

Comparison group       N = 23

Figure 1.  Decrease in scores on neuromotor tests indicates a decrease in signs of neuromotor immaturity. ie. improvement in neuromotor status.

Figure 2

Graph 2.jpg

Fig. 2 Increase in scores on reading indicate improvement in reading


Brailsford School

Summary of report from Head Teacher:


“Attached is my latest analysis of progress of children doing/not doing INPP exercises. Measures are nos. of sub-levels of progress from KS1 to 2. There were 29 children doing the exercises (this was the year we came on your refresher course then screened all the junior children - so there were children in all 4 year groups doing the programme in groups of 6-8 - we don't have a hall so have to do small groups). A number in a box represents a child and the number of sub-levels of progress that child made between Key Stages. Children marked # had SEN. I think these results are quite remarkable. I certainly attribute the outstanding progress of our children with SEN to their participation in the INPP programme.


Jackie Mickelthwaite, Head teacher, Brailsford School

School context:

21% free school meals

376 children, 23 nationalities, 42 languages, 11 faiths

48 vulnerable children

35% pupils with special education needs / disabilities

OFSTED Special Measures/Serious Weaknesses from 1995 to 2002 without a break. November 2012 – judged to be outstanding in all areas

Looking for reasons:


Domestic violence


Physical factors/illness

Learning poverty at home             

Mental health problems

If none of these are factors, why slow progress and/or low attainment?


John Stainer Community School

When mapped again National Curriculum (NC) measures of attainment:


100% of pupils who scored below age related expectations at the end of Year 2 in reading, showed high (above 30%) percentages of neuromotor immaturity.


The lower the NC level (ie Level 1), the higher the average neuromotor immaturity percentage score


Pupils with the highest neuromotor immaturity (between 65% and 78%) scored the lowest (NC level 1) in reading, writing and maths.


Those above the national average?

There were far fewer, (but still some) children  #with high neuromotor immaturity scores in this group, the range was between 15 and 50% (average 27%),

Compare this to the level 1 children, where the scores ranged between 35 and 78% (average 55%)

Regardless of their scores, we made the decision to do the 15 minutes a day with the whole class. The class moves on only when all pupils have mastered each move from the programme, which are followed in sequence.


Why does it all matter?

How you hold a pencil, and record

How you sit on the carpet, and concentrate

How well you can refine ideas, and become resilient

How you process information, and understand

What you see and hear, so you know what to do


So that we, as educators, can understand that for some children there are underlying issues which, if they are addressed early, could accelerate both progress and achievement.


Sue Harte, Head Teacher, John Stainer School


St. John’s C of E Primary School
Reading, Berkshire

Reading ages using the Salford Reading Test were identified at the start, after 3 terms and finally at the end of the 4th term programme. Salford demands a range of strategies to be employed by the child from initial sounds and blends to segmenting and use of syllables. Sequencing, memory and organisational skills all being required to decode the unfamiliar words.


The INPP exercise club met every morning for approximately 15 minutes directly after registration; groups of movements were demonstrated and then undertaken by the  group over a period of 4 terms.


Observations following the 4 term programme:


Over the 14 months between the September 2006 and November 2007 Salford Reading tests; 67% of the group made progress of more than 24 months and 33% of children made a gain in reading averaging 19.5 months. 


When considering the Salford Reading Test as a measure of reading progress the whole group made an average gain of 26 months in 4 terms.


The pupil with the highest neurological score in September 06 made most gain in reading age and in neurological development during same period of 4 terms. 


In Tracking, Integration and Sound Discrimination activities, the children experiencing the most difficulties made the greatest improvement.


There is a strong correlation between reduction in neurological score and an improvement in educational attainment.


Data was gathered by the INPP licentiate and school staff.


Jenny Fry, Licentiate of INPP, and former Head Teacher

Areas of development where we hoped to see increasing levels of confidence and skills:


Improvements to literacy skills

Increased ability to concentrate: settle to task quicker and or stay on task longer 

Where and how did we start the study?


The SENCo identified 6 children from Years 3 and 4, where concerns had been raised by teachers that the children experienced difficulties with reading skills, writing including spelling and hand writing. In addition some of the group found concentration on whatever activity to be a very demanding skill and as learners in the classroom this was an issue. They were however not considered to be children with specific learning difficulties.

Baseline assessments were carried out before and after the programme using the developmental test battery designed by INPP which enabled each child’s profile to be collected through a series of neurological tests; this included checks for static and dynamic balance and co-ordination and evidence of early movement patterns known as reflexes. The assessment also included tests for visual tracking ability and sound discrimination. 


Scoring for each test ranged between 0 – 4:

Scoring 0 = no abnormality detected

                                                                                            1 = 25% dysfunction

                                                                                            2 = 50% dysfunction

                                                                                            3 = 75% dysfunction

                                                                                            4 = 100% dysfunction

What was the starting point?


We spent some time looking at INPP’s Developmental Exercise Programme and the published results and discussed it with Sarah Bertram, an INPP Consultant who had carried out a study [3]at Prince Albert Primary school in Birmingham.


The Education Action Zone offered to support a Pilot Developmental Exercise Programme in the zone primary schools and organised a training day with Sarah Bertram for 2 members of staff from each primary school.


The programme started in 8 primary schools in Kingstanding Education Action Zone (North East Birmingham) as follows:


  • Christ the King RC Primary

  • Hawthorn Primary

  • Kings Rise Community Primary

  • Kingsthorne Primary

  • Perry Common J & I

  • Sundridge Primary

  • Twickenham Primary

  • Warren Farm Primary


Subsequently, 2 schools did not re-start the programme after the summer holidays 2006.  One of the remaining  schools has yet to submit their data (July 2007).  There were staffing issues in a third school towards the end of the programme which resulted in an abrupt termination of the programme and a delay in re-testing the children until a member of staff had returned from sick leave. 


What were we trying to achieve?


We were trying to improve pupils’ co-ordination and balance which we hoped would in turn lead to a corresponding improvement in concentration, confidence and self-esteem.  We also hoped there might be an improvement in social skills and possibly improved Literacy skills. 


What did we do?


Following the training, staff went back to their schools to identify possible pupils for the programme using their own observations, teacher recommendations, simple screening tests such as balancing on one leg, then confirming potential children for the programme by using the INPP Test Battery for schools.  This is a neurological test battery used to determine whether primitive reflexes are still present in children and includes other tests of co-ordination and balance.  The INPP Exercise Programme aims to give the brain “a second chance” of replicating and inhibiting the primitive reflexes.


We also asked teachers to complete the INPP Parent/Teacher assessment questionnaire and we substituted the Goodenough Draw-a-Person[2] test for the Tansley & Bender Gestalt tests for 7 years old and over and the Pencil & Paper tests for 3 – 6 year olds.  Following consultation with Sally Goddard Blythe, we planned to use only the Romberg, One Leg Stand and Creeping (Crawling) Tests for children aged 3 as staff were finding it quite difficult to carry out some of the tests with children as young as 3 years old.


We were advised by the INPP Consultant to start small, therefore a group of pupils (on average 8 in each group) was selected in each school.  Pupils were between the ages of 3 to 9 years and there turned out to be twice as many boys than girls.


Parents/carers were informed by letter that their children would be taking part in a small exercise group to help their child’s balance and co-ordination.


Within each school, practitioners tried to run the programme every day with a stipulated minimum of 3 days per week only where unavoidable.  Most of the programmes started in October or November 2005 and finished between December 2006 and June 2007.


A Support Group for practitioners was set up to share ideas and good practice meeting every half term.  Sarah Bertram supported us by attending these meetings, visiting groups in schools and doing staff In-Service Training sessions to help raise awareness of the programme.


We also carried out a mid-term review and drew up some guidelines for running further groups based on what we had learned.


[3] “Is the INPP Reflex Inhibition Programme Effective?”  (23/09/03)  Brainbox Research Ltd

[4] Florence Goodenough (1926)  Measurement of Intelligence by Children’s Drawings, Harcourt Brace & World, New York

Picture 3.png


Kingstanding Education Action Zone

Why did we undertake this programme?


Since its inception in 2000, the priorities of Kingstanding Education Action Zone (EAZ) for raising achievement have always focused on long term programmes which produce sustainable, long term outcomes rather than ‘quick fixes’.  Some examples are Creativity programmes, child led learning in the Foundation Stage (Reggio Emilio approach), Learning Diversity classrooms (Barbara Prashnig), VCOP (Verbs, Connectives, Openers, Punctuation) with Ros Wilson and Forest Schools.


We were aware that, despite various interventions, some children did not achieve as well as others but neither did these same children have a statement of Special Educational Needs.  We therefore thought that the Developmental Exercise Programme might help these “hard to reach” children.


Demographic background


The Kingstanding Ward is one of the most deprived electoral wards in the country (Health Profile for Birmingham 2006 – APHO).


All but 2 of the Education Action Zone primary schools have over 80% of pupils in Quintile 1 of the Multiple Deprivation Indicator (MDI) – Post Code Analysis - which is the highest level of deprivation.  The average MDI for primary schools in the EAZ is 86% whilst the national average is 20% (2006).


When children are baselined on entry to school, pupils in the Kingstanding area are lower than the Birmingham average.


Kingstanding is a predominately white area.  The Joseph Rowntree Foundation has identified that ‘white British students on average are more likely than other ethnic groups to persist in under-achievement’[1].


How was the need identified?


  • A member of school staff whose niece had undertaken an individually tailored programme with DDAT[2] spoke very favourably of the outcome.  We thought it would be good to be able to offer something similar to pupils who might benefit but whose parents’ financial circumstances might preclude this.

  • We had already identified that some pupils lacked co-ordination and had difficulties with balancing during dance workshops.

  • We were in a position to support our schools, both financially and otherwise, to take part in a developmental delay exercise programme, and therefore felt that the INPP Programme would be suitable for us.

  • The approach was non-invasive and drug-free.


[1] ‘Tackling low educational achievement’   Joseph Rowntree Foundation  (


What has been the impact and achievements to date?

  • The exercise programme produced a decrease in abnormally retained reflexes, as measured with the INPP Test Battery. 

  • Previous studies have shown that a decrease in retained reflexes correlates with an improvement in cognitive ability (see footnote 3 above).


  • All of the practitioners who have submitted comments on their pupils’ test scores have noted improvements in co-ordination (one boy had made the best progress in PE in his class and was now able to catch a ball) and confidence (a previously shy girl was now an outspoken member of her school council).


  • Staff also reported an increase in children’s self-esteem which has led to their being able to cope better socially (at lunchtimes, in the playground and making friends).


  • There has not been an overall increase in reading and writing levels although one child who had been on level 2c in writing for about 2 years prior to the programme, had moved up to level 3c by the end of the programme (an increase of 3 sub levels)..


  • The Goodenough Draw-a-Man test results showed that in 74% of cases, the children’s mental age had caught up with, or surpassed their chronological age by the end of the programme.


Report provided by Gill Turner Co-ordinator for the INPP Project in Zone Schools


An evaluation of the pilot INPP movement programme in Primary schools in the North Eastern Education & Library Board
Northern Ireland

Final Report, 2004

Compiled by Brainbox Research Ltd.

Executive Summary


The INPP exercise programme aims to enhance learning by reducing abnormally retained reflexes, thought to inhibit development. The aim of this research is to determine whether retained reflexes predict poor educational progress and to evaluate the effectiveness of the programme by measuring the educational progress associated with undertaking the prescribed exercises. The programme is evaluated for children who have high levels of retained reflexes and who are underachieving educationally (the criteria for which the programme was designed), and also for all children, regardless of their reflex or educational scores.


Measures of retained reflexes, balance, educational ability and concentration/co-ordination were

made in a controlled study of P5 children in seven Northern Ireland primary schools at the start

(September 2003) and end (June 2004) of the school year. In each school one P5 class undertook the exercises and the other did not. Two P2 classes in each school also participated in the research.


None of the P2 classes undertook the exercises, and the extent to which the presence of retained

reflexes at the start of the school year can predict educational progress at the end of the year was

assessed. A total of 672 P2 and P5 children participated in the research. The following conclusions were drawn:


  • 35% of P5 children and 48% of P2 children showed elevated levels of retained reflexes at the first assessment.

  • 15% (49) P5 children had a reading age below their chronological age. Of these, 28 also had elevated levels of retained reflexes.

  • Elevated levels of retained reflexes are correlated with poor educational achievement at baseline.

  • Children who undertook the exercise programme showed a statistically significant greater decrease (improvement) in retained reflexes than children who did not undertake the exercises.

  • Children who undertook the exercise programme showed a highly significant improvement in balance and co-ordination, and a small but statistically significant increase in a measure of cognitive development over children who did not undertake the exercises.

  • No difference was found in reading, handwriting or spelling in children who were already achieving at or near their chronological age, but for children with high levels of retained reflexes and a reading age below their chronological age, those who undertook the exercise programme made greater progress.

  • Retained reflexes are correlated with poor cognitive development, poor balance, and teacher assessment of poor concentration/co-ordination in P2 children. Neurological scores and teacher assessment at baseline predicted poorer reading and literacy scores at the end of the study


If a child has issues with

  • Balance

  • Crawling

  • Finger and Thumb Opposition

  • Primitive (Baby) Reflexes

  • Neuromotor Delay

Are they more likely to achieve below National Expectation at Key Stage 1?


Bentley West School

A study of 114 ‘Key Stage 1’ children, at Bentley West School, Walsall, to see if certain physical immaturities (Neuromotor Delay), might act as a barrier to attainment.

Conclusions following assessment and intervention


The data obtained suggests very strongly that there is a link between Neuromotor Delay and Key Stage 1 children attaining the levels in core subjects expected of them.


Of course, it is not the only factor, but it is a significant barrier. Previous experience and research strongly supports the view that by using the INPP exercise programme, this barrier to learning can be lifted thus enabling children with Neuromotor Delay to accelerate their progress toward achieving or exceeding the attainment expected of them.


Pete Griffin.  A former Head Teacher and INPP Licentiate


North Tyneside Council Report Early Years Project
2007 - 2008

A review of children’s progress was carried out by two early years consultants who had undergone training in the use of the INPP Screening Test and Developmental Movement Programme.


The initial screen was administered in October 2007 and the follow up screen in July 2008 before the children moved to Year 1.

Improved outcomes for children in the INPP group included:

Progress of 214 points in reflex scores (from 326 points in October 2007 to 112 points in July 2008). (A decrease in positive scores for the presence of reflexes indicates improvement in neuromotor maturity).

Significant improvement in crossing the mid- line 20+ points to 0. The ability to cross the mid-line impacts directly on reading and writing.

Significant improvement in STNR (Symmetric Tonic Neck Reflex.

In addition, individual case studies demonstrate individual success, for example:

Child A: An autumn born twin boy (on free school meals (fsm) and registered as ‘school action plus’ on the special educational needs (SEN) register), scored 28 points in Test Battery. This reduced to five points after three terms and child A scored 83 points across Foundation Stage Profile (FSP).

Child B: A spring born girl (fsm) made 20 points’ progress in INPP Test Battery and scored 100 points overall in the FSP, becoming one of the highest achievers in the class.

Child C: An August born boy (receiving additional support in nursery), whose initial INPP score of 31 reduced to five, and who became the highest achieving boy in the group (achieving a level 6+ in all assessment strands).

Profile data submitted in July 2008 also showed that only two reception class children in the primary school fell into the lowest performing 20 per cent of children in the local authority.

Of the 12 children who were identified to take part in the INPP programme, only five of these fell into the lowest performing 20 per cent of the class at the end of the reception year. All 12 children were in the lowest performing two groups academically at the beginning of the school year.

Although less quantifiable, children’s confidence and self-esteem improved significantly. Practitioners commented on their dispositions and attitudes and on improvements in their well being. The early years consultants met with parents who all commented favourably on their children’s participation in the programme. The children enjoyed talking about the exercises, and their improved control over their bodies and ability to perform the exercises (concentration) was noted by all those working with them.


Pat Charlton and Alison Hore.  Early Years Consultants to North Tyneside Council

Participant schools:


Ashington Central First School – 80 pupils – year 3 - one group NDD programme, one groups Activate – mixed ability in each group

Choppington First School -  All Year 1,2,3 and 4 pupils

Red Row First School – (58 pupils) All Reception, Year 1,2 and 3 pupils

The Grove Special School –  28 pupils aged 5 -17


The INPP developmental movement programme and the Activate programme were used with different groups.


Behaviour Support Service Schools and Family Support Division,
Children's Services Directorate
Northumberland County Council

Statistical results appear to show:


  • there is a correlation between behaviour and retention of infant reflexes

  • there is a reduced level of retained reflex scores between 1st and 2nd assessment in the 3-6 age group

  • there is a reduced level of balance error scores between 1st and 2nd assessments in the 3-6 age group

  • there was a reduction in reflex retention between 1st and 2nd assessment in the 3-6 age group

  • there is a greater reduction in reflex scores between 1st and 2nd assessment in the INPP group than the Activate  (comparison) group

  • there is a greater reduced level of balance error scores between 1st and 2nd assessment in the INPP group than the Activate group

  • the INPP group were assessed with  higher level of reflex retention at the outset than the Activate group in the 1st assessment and have therefore made greater overall progress

  • the INPP group were assessed with  lower level of reflex retention than the Activate group in the 2nd  assessment


Please note – both the Activate group and the INPP group showed development through the year - this study intends no comment on the Activate exercise programme.


Ruth Marlee


St Margaret Mary RC School Carlisle

We have been using the INPP Schools’ Programme for a number of years now.  We have seen some remarkable improvements in children’s physical abilities, their balance and coordination, their learning and importantly in the dignity and self esteem it affords them.  We have evidence from some groups of quite dramatic rises in reading scores and also in standardised tests of neurological development. This includes the standard “Draw a Person” test.  Some of our results in this area were published in “The Well Balanced Child”. Hawthorn Press.

The programme is taught to whole classes rather than to individuals and we have found that the optimum age for beginning is at Year 3.  Before this, our younger children follow a modified version prepared by INPP.  Our younger children also follow the “Basic Moves” course.  At any one time we will have three classes of children following the programme.


The adults in school including teaching staff and support staff are committed to delivering the programme and have been trained by INPP to do so. It is a relatively cost free programme requiring only time and commitment.  In our school it is offered to all the children not merely those children experiencing specific difficulties.


We have been working recently with a consultant Paediatrician who summed it up like this;  “Children learn with their bodies before they learn with their heads.  Movement is our first language.  Because our Education system has focused on the cognitive and the Health Service has focused on disease, we have missed out on the nurture of this vital transitional phase, which needs to be fostered in early development.  This programme redresses this imbalance and provides a physical education in its truest sense, as part of a holistic education to nurture the whole child.” (Dr Arthur Paynter quoted with permission)


Greg Smith.  Former Head Teacher.  St Margaret Mary RC School, Carlisle.

From my research

  • 75% of underachieving children (85% reading, 67% writing and 75% maths) have NDD.

  • Of 75 children across three schools who underwent the movement programme in the year of reflex inhibition 70% made a year or more progress which at least brought them closer to age expected attainment. Those who benefitted least seemed to have either very high NDD scores or very low NDD scores. They were placed on the movement programme because of their attainment not their NDD profile. A better assessment of NDD could have resulted in

    • Only those children most likely to benefit engaging in the programme.

    • Some children being put on an individualised programme.

  • Other research shows that the gains made from engaging with the programme are continue.


Assuming that:

  • About 20% of children in a school are underachieving.

  • That of these about 75% have NDD (From my study 85% reading, 67% writing and 75% maths)

In a two form entry school, with 8 classes of 30 in key stage 2 there are likely to be 48 children under achieving of whom 36 would benefit from the INPP movement programme. The greater the proportion of children underachieving, the greater the number that would benefit.


Nationally, with about 20% of children underachieving then looking at the results of my research and that of NEEB, then at least 10-15% of the Junior school population are underachieving because NDD is a contributory factor. It would be interesting to look at the relationship between those children who at age 7 are predicted a level 5 by the age of 11, but do not achieve it and the prevalence of NDD.


Pete Griffin, Former Head Teacher


Park Hall Junior School

Based on a document produced earlier:

  1. About 40% of a sample of 198 children had signs of Neuro Developmental Delay(NDD)

  2. However, amongst the below age expected achievement children, in core subjects the average number of NDD children was at 75%.

  3. The incidence of three primitive reflexes was significantly more prevalent amongst poor readers.

  4. I demonstrated that of the NDD low achieving children a reflex inhibition and development movement programme reduced the children’s NDD.

  5. Consequently, the more the children’s NDD was reduced generally the greater their progress in core subjects.


Bakáts tér Mainstream School, 9. District Budapest, Hungary

Duration program: November 2009 – February 2011

Number of children:  21, age:  8-9 year, 2-3 grade

“It was an amazing experience for us to see that, even those children who were apparently coping with school very well, showed a (partly) very immature nervous system. We had no idea that they had traces  of primitive reflexes and were very surprised by the high scores that were found of those reflexes during the testing procedures. 


As their form teacher, I saw those children every day, for long hours.  I started to observe the signs of their compensatory mechanisms. I found that they were very smart and adept  at compensating for their physical shortcomings.


The signs were among others: almost a spastic way of holding their pencil; the position of their legs and feet under the chair/table; supporting their head with their arm, elbow; mouth and tongue movements during writing; turning their booklet, sheets, difficulties with conducting their written tasks, etc.


Being an elementary school teacher, I used to think before that those signs were signs of tiredness or lack of energy, primarily resulting from insufficient focus and concentration. All these were problems in my eyes, which they could easily overcome if they only wanted to.


But,  what I had learned about the reflexes, made me wiser now. I altered my point of view and we started with the daily exercises. We called it our “slow gym”, introducing and anchoring a new way of thinking and feeling for the children about themselves. They had to learn how to slow down.


Mrs. Erika Kotormánné Erdei

Former form- teacher.  Budapest, March 21st, 2011 




Mrs. Magda Zweegman-Kocsis


Mrs. Ágnes Nyiregyházi


Mrs. Katalin Gátfalvi


The aim of this study was to reveal that in children with learning disorders, has a high level of preservation of primitive reflexes, whose inhibition affects their academic achievements.The study also aimed to reveal and highlight the role that academic intervention moves by individual program INPP in reducing the level of unconstrained initial reflexes in children aged 6-10 years old.


The study is undertaken with children that have learning disorders, aged 6-10 years old, in the city of Vlora, focusing on the role of inhibition of initial reflexes in academic achievement, language, reading, mathematics and behavior. At birth, a baby has no control over voluntary movements. The child responds to environmental incentives through initial reflexes, which are automatic stereotyped response. Initial reflexes should be refrained slowly during the first year of life. They can not be curbed all, some of them are integrated into new voluntary movements as reflexes for all the life. When the initial reflexes continue in infancy, they interfere with the development.


The study aims to test three hypotheses. First hypothesis: In children with learning disorders we have increased presence of initial reflexes; The second hypothesis: the initial reflexes are reduced through educational intervention with a motor therapy package; and the third hypothesis: Students with VN aged 6-10 years old, whose initial reflexes are treated with movement therapy, improve the results in reading, writing, math and behavior. The study was carried out only by 20% of children with VN in this city.


The study is quantitative, conducted by experiment. The experiment was found as the most suitable model for motion pedagogical intervention. The INPP program was selected from the totality of motion programs. This program provides specific reflexive movements. Form the INPP program were selected exercises only for eight initial reflex, Moro, Research (Rooting), Gain (Sucking), Asymmetric Tonic Neck reflex (ATNR) Lateral Tonic reflex (TLR), reflex Palmar (Palmar), and reflex Galant Highlights Symmetric Tonic Neck (STNR). The findings of this study show that children with learning disorders who have a high level of initial reflexes have lower academic results. Results of pedagogical intervention confirm the link of motion initial reflexes with the academic achievements and with reduction of the level of initial reflexes, academic achievements and behavior are improved.


Sulltana Bilbilaj

Tinanë, Albania



Vlora, Albania


Moscow, Russia

Published in:

Modern methods of prevention and correction of developmental disorders

for children: Tradition and innovation: Sat. materials of the II International Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference, October 22-23, 2020.

ed. O. N. Usanova. - M .: Kogito-Center - Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis, 2020 .--  pp. 11-23

ISBN 978-5-89353-607-2


During the last 20 years, the incidence of underachievement amongst children in elementary schools has increased dramatically. However new research and evaluated remedial programmes are emerging to support these children.


The aim of this study was the investigation of the level of neuro-psychological development of children in the first year of school in Russia. 87 pupils from two private schools in Moscow were tested using the INPP developmental screening test.


Results of the assessment showed that about 40% of children according to the 25+% criterion show signs of neuromotor immaturity(NMI); there are significant differences between boys (21 out of 35, 60%) and girls (14 out of 51, 27.5%) who have a level of neuromotor immaturity >25%.


This suggests that the number of children with neuromotor immaturity who started school is approximately the same in Russia as in other European countries. To increase the success of learning, it is advisable to introduce routine screening of children’s neuromotor skills and developmental motor programmes in schools, such as the INPP school intervention programme. 


Sally Goddard Blythe INPP Ltd

Natalia Lunina INPP Moscow


20 students, 13 girls and 7 boys.


Teacher: Sonia Lozano Pozo

INPP Licenciate: Elena García Gómez


Awaiting URL to full report


El Calderí School,
Caldes de Montbui

Use of INPP Developmental Movement Programme for Younger Children
4 – 6 years of age based on:
Movement Your Child’s First Language

Movement YCFL.jpg


  1. Staff identified children with poor physical skills

  2. Carried out initial assessments

  3. Set up a group of children from assessments that we felt would benefit from the programme

  4. Ran the programme every day for a school year

  5. Re-assessed the children in July to see progress



  1. Children made progress and their skills developed greatly in the areas of gross and fine motor control

  2. Parents noted improvements in skills at home and were pleased with the daily support their child received

  3. Also had an impact on listening skills, social skills, language skills (the vocabulary introduced by the songs and stories)


Why has it worked?


  1. Short time each day

  2. Consistent

  3. Repetition of movements

  4. Invested money and time – use of PE funding

  5. Staff inspired and believe in the value of this!

  6. Children really love it!

  7. Can see it works!


Next Steps:


  1. Plan to continue with group of FS2 and Y1 children

  2. Plan to introduce to FS1 – Nursery to use programme with whole class

  3. Following whole school inset day we are considering how this can be used in KS2


Meersbrook Primary School.  Sheffield


Issues in School:

Over the past few years our Early Years staff has noticed that …

  1. More children are starting school with poor gross motor skills

  2. More children have poor fine motor skills

  3. Many children were struggling to sit still on the carpet

  4. Children were having difficulty focusing, concentrating and staying on task


Our challenge had become how can we support these children in developing these vital skills before any formal learning can start to take place!

bottom of page