Published Research INPP and Others

  • Pecuch, A.; Gieysztor, E.;Wola ´ nska, E.;Telenga, M.;Paprocka-Borowicz, M. Primitive Reflex Activity in Relation to Motor Skills in Healthy Preschool Children. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 967.
  • Goddard Blythe SA, Duncombe R, Preedy P & Gorely T, 2021. Neuromotor readiness for school: the primitive reflex status of young children at the start and end of their first year at school in the United Kingdom. Education 3-13, DOI: 10.1080/03004279.2021.1895276.
  • Zielińska M, Goddard Blythe SA, 2021. School functioning of students with neuromotor immaturity. International Journal of Pedagogy Innovation and New Technologies journal Vol. 7, No. 2, 2020, pp. 40-46.
  • Matuszkiewicz M and Tadeusz Gałkowsk T., 2021. Developmental Language Disorder and Uninhibited Primitive Reflexes in Young Children. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research. February 2021.
  • Hickey J, Feldhacker DR, 2020. Primitive reflex retention and attention among preschool children. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools and Early Intervention. April 2020.
  • Pecuch A ,Gieysztor E ,Telenga M Wola ´ nska E,Kowal M and Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz. 2020. Primitive Reflex Activity in Relation to the Sensory Profile in Healthy Preschool Children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. November. 2020.
  • Goddard Blythe, S. A., and N. Lunina. 2020. “Assessing Neuromotor Readiness for Learning.” In Modern Methods of Prevention and Correction of Developmental Disorders for Children: Tradition and Innovation: ON, edited by Usanova Kogito, 11–23. Moscow: Kogito Center, Institute of Psychoanalysis.
  • Gieysztor EZ et al. 2017. The degree of primitive reflexes integration as a diagnostic tool to assess the neurological maturity of healthy preschool and early school aged children. Nursing and Public Health.
  • Gieysztor EZ et al. 2016. Persistence of primitive reflexes and associated motor problems in healthy preschool children. Archives of Medical Science.
  • Goddard Blythe SA, 2014 (unpublished).
    Neuromotor Immaturity in Children and Adults. Screening, Assessment and Intervention using The INPP Method. Theory and Practice. An Historical Overview. Paper presented at The 22nd International Conference of Neuromotor Delay in Children with Learning and Behaviour Problems. 13th and 14th September 2014. Vienna.
  • Berg A, Fitzgerald LS, 2013
    Neurophysiological training for children with learning difficulties. Fysioterapeuten. 2013.
  • Goddard Blythe SA, 2011
    Neuromotor immaturity as an indicator of developmentl readiness for education. Report on the use of a Neuro-Motor Test Battery and Developmental Movement Programme in schools in Northumberland and Berkshire. In Movement, Vision, Hearing The Basis of Learning(Ed. Kulesza EM). 2011. Wydawnictwo Akademii Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej. Warsawa.
  • 2005 Goddard Blythe SA
    A published report of 6 independent studies carried out in mainstream schools in the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland using The INPP Test Battery and Developmental Exercise programme for Use in Schools. Reflex status of children who took part in the INPP programme made significantly greater improvements in compared to control and comparison groups. Children in the experimental groups also slightly increased improvements in reading. Releasing educational potential through movement. Child Care in Practice. Volume 11/4: 415 – 432.
  • 2004 North East Education Library Board. Co.Antrim. Northern Ireland
    This study examined the incidence of abnormal reflexes in more than 672. Primary 5 and Primary 2 children across 6 mainstream schools in Northern Ireland. Using tests for 3 primitive reflexes, researchers found that 35% of P5 children and 48% of P2 children still had traces of retained primitive reflexes. Comparison of reflex scores with educational measures at baseline revealed that children with higher scores for abnormal reflexes had lower performance on educational measures.
    Half of P5 children carried out the INPP Developmental Exercise Programme for use in Schools under teacher supervision every school day for one academic year. The experimental group showed statistically significant improvements in measures of retained reflexes, balance and coordination and a measure of non-verbal cognitive performance compared to the control group. Children who had reflex scores of >25% and reading age below chronological age at the outset, showed greater improvement in reading, but the numbers in the group were too small to reach statistical significance. An evaluation of the pilot INPP Movement Programme in Primary Schools in the Northern Eastern Education Library Board. Northern Ireland. Report prepared by Brainbox research.
  • Goddard Blythe SA, 2001.
    Neurological dysfunction as a significant factor in children diagnosed with dyslexia. Proceedings of The 5th International BDA Conference. University of York. April 2001. This paper may be ordered from
  • McPhillips, Hepper and Mulhern, 2000.
    This double-blind cross-over study assessed the efficacy of an intervention programme based on the original INPP Method, using movements replicating the primary reflex system during fetal and neonatal life. The experimental group showed a significant decrease in the level of persistent reflex activity over the course of the study compared to control and placebo groups. Reading and writing speeds also improved more in the experimental groups. The Lancet.355/2:2000.
  • Goddard Blythe SA, Hyland D, 1998.
    Screening for neurological dysfunction in the specific learning difficulty child. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. October 1998
  • Goddard SA, 1995.
    The role of primitive reflexes in the development of the visual system. Journal of Behavioral Optometry. 6/2:31-35.
  • EYFS Best Practice. All About Movement. Nursery World 2016.
  • Leaps Towards Learning. Early Years Education (EYE) October 2019
  • 2013Move on
    ‘A response to new government proposals for child care. Pages 14 and 15.’
  • 2013Response to budget proposals
    ‘Response to budget proposals which favour working parents over stay at home mothers’
  • 2011Schooldays Magazine
    ‘Secrets of Thriving Children’
  • 2011 – Linstock Newswire – ‘Up to Half of Five year olds are not ready for School’
  • 8th May 2011The Guardian, Amelia Hill
    ‘Singing to Children may develop language skills’
  • 15th March 2011The Daily Mail
    ‘Fairy Tales are better for children than modern books’
  • 14th March 2011The Telegraph, Graeme Paton
    Parents who shun fairytales ‘miss chance to teach children morality’
  • 18th June 2011Priyo
    ‘Through fairytale teach morality to kids’
  • 31st August
    ‘Children unprepared for school’
  • 2nd June 2011BBC Radio 5 Live, Victoria Derbyshire and Sally Goddard Blythe
    ‘Many primary school pupils lack basic motor skills’
  • June 2011Jo Jingles web site,
    ‘Children not ready for school at 5’
  • 14th June 2011Nursery World, Catherine Gaunt
    ‘Motor skills gap hampers young children’s learning’
  • 3rd March 2010Nursery World
    ‘Motor skills put to the test’
  • 2011Toddler Kindy GymbaROO
    Toddler Kindy GymbaROO
  • 17th March 2011Daily Express, Dr Pam Spurr
    ‘The real life lessons in fairy tales’
  • July 2011Montessori International
    Ask the Expert, Q and A with Sally Goddard Blythe
  • 15th March 2011 – The Sun Newspaper, Sally Goddard Blythe
    ‘Scary stories help children know right from wrong’
  • 23 October 2009 – Times Educational Supplement
    Cambridge primary review: government would do well to heed these child-centred recommendations
  • 7 September 2009 – Interview with
    Sally Goddard Blythe Discusses What Babies And Children Need
  • 12 June 2009 – Nursery World
    Reading is to be shared
  • 20 May 2009 –
    Interview with Tracy Stevens – A Better Education
  • 14 May 2009 – Daily Mail
    Special needs and the legacy of virtual playtime
  • 12 May 2009 – Times Educational Supplement
    Relentless growth is special needs
  • April to June 2009 – Montessori International
  • 12 March 2009 – Nursery World
    Real Interactivity
  • 24 February 2009 –
    Learning to move and move to learn
  • 3 February 2009 – Daily Mail (Bel Mooney)
    Why do the left hate the family? Liberals will ignore new findings that children growing up with a mother and father fare best
  • February 2009 – IQ journal
    Physical interaction and social engagement – essential ingredients for later learning success
  • January 2009 – New View
    Why movement is an essential ingredient of child’s development
  • 2009 – Kindred Spirit
    Prioritising children’s needs in a materialistic world
  • 19 December 2008 – Times Educational Supplement
    Daily exercise is better than none
  • 16 December 2008 – Daily Mail
    Couch potato babies strapped into their seats
  • October to December 2008 – Montessori International
    Observing and identifying physical readiness for learning
  • December 2005 – Medical Veritas
    Reflections of brain-body functioning
  • December 2005 – Medical Veritas
    Transcript of a radio interview with Sally Goddard Blythe for Autismone Radio
  • July 2005 – Daily Telegraph
    A Circular Road to Recovery
  • May 2005 – Special Needs Coordinators File
    The Importance of Sounding Out for Hearing Within
  • April 2005 – Times Educational Supplement
    Motor Skills Drive Success
  • February 2005
    Lost in Education – Identifying and Help for the Under-Achieving Child
  • January 2005 – Special Needs Coordinators File
    Releasing Intelligence through Movement
  • 2005 – Dyslexia Online Journal
    Cerebellar Theory Should Not be Discounted in Response to Aggressive Marketing Strategy

Unpublished Reports:

  • 2007 Turner G, 2007. Report on the INPP Developmental Exercise Pilot Programme in Kingstanding Education Action Zone, Birmingham.

Independent studies examining the incidence of abnormal reflexes in Specific Learning Difficulties:

  • 2004 Taylor M, Houghton S, Chapman E
    Primitive reflexes and Attention Deficit Disorder: developmental origins of classroom dysfunction. This study examined the symptomatologic overlap of ADHD behaviors and retention of four primitive reflexes. International Journal of Special Education (Vol. 19/1)
  • 2004 McPhillips M, Sheehy N.
    This study examined the prevalence of the Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex in children with reading difficulties. Dyslexia.10/4:316-338.
  • 1994 Wilkinson G, University of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne. M.Ed Thesis (unpubliished)
    This was a replica study (Rider B, 1971) which investigated a possible link between abnormal primitive reflexes and learning difficulty. The results indicated a definite link between retained primitive reflexes and specific learning difficulty or educational under-achievement.
  • 1976 Bender M, University of Purdue. PhD.
    Miriam Bender examined the effect of the Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex on education – and found it to be present in 75% of a group of learning disabled children – it was not present in a comparison group of children with no history of learning disabilities. She developed exercises designed to inhibit the STNR and many of the presenting educational problems started to improve. The Bender Purdue Reflex Test. Academic Therapy Publications, CA.
  • 1971 Rider B, University of Kansas.
    Barbara Rider (Occupational Therapist.) assessed the prevalence of abnormal reflex responses by comparing normal second grade children to a group of learning disabled children using the Wide Range Achievement Tests (WRAT). Children with normal reflexes scored consistently higher on achievement tests than those with abnormal reflexes.
  • 1970 Gustaffson, University of Kansas
    Gustaffson (Occupational Therapist) compared the reflex levels of a group of neurologically impaired children with a group of children with no known neurological impairment and found all the children with neurological impairment had abnormal reflexes.

    NB: This list is only a sample of research in the field.

Radio Interviews

  • 2nd June 2011BBC Radio 5 Live
    Victoria Derbyshire and Sally Goddard Blythe ‘Many primary school pupils lack basic motor skills’
  • February 2009 – BBC Radio 4
    Moral Maze
  • January 2009 – BBC London Radio
    Vanessa Feltz show
  • 2009 – BBC Radio Merseyside
    Guest opinions on news affairs